Gas planet:

Planets that are mostly made up of gases like hydrogen and helium. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are gas planets.

Goldilocks Zone:

The Goldilocks Zone refers to a zone around a star where planets could hold life. If the planet is too far from the star, it would be too cold to hold life. If it is too close to the star, it would be too hot to hold life. Hence the "perfect temperature zone" - not too hot and not too cold!

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An atom or group of atoms that carries a positive or negative electric charge as a result of having lost or gained one or more electrons.

Light spectrum or visible light:

The part of the electromagnetic spectrum that we can see with our eyes. It’s all the colors of the rainbow.


An object, thought to be a rapidly rotating neutron star. It releases short pulses of radio waves and other electromagnetic radiation.

Quantum theory:

A theory in physics based on the idea that radiant energy (as light) is composed of small separate packets of energy.


Any of several particles that are believed to be components of heavier particles (as protons or neutrons).

Star Cluster:

A star clusters is a large group of stars.


An extremely large star that is between 10,000 and 100,000 times brighter than the sun.

Time Dilation:

Gravity on the surface of a planet makes time pass faster than it does in space. So when a twin travels to space for many years, they will find that their twin is older than them when they return to Earth.

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How fast does the Earth hurtle through space?:

Earth spins at 1000 miles per hour, so even when we are sitting still, we are in fact flying through space at incredible speed.